Hopfield Neuronal Network of Fractional Order: A note on its numerical integration

Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 151(111219) (2021) .


In this paper, the commensurate fractional-order variant of an Hopfield neuronal network is analyzed.
The system is integrated with the ABM method for fractional-order equations. Beside the standard stability analysis of equilibria, the divergence of fractional order is proposed to determine the instability
of the equilibria. The bifurcation diagrams versus the fractional order, and versus one parameter, reveal
a strange phenomenon suggesting that the bifurcation branches generated by initial conditions outside
neighborhoods of unstable equilibria are spurious sets although they look similar with those generated
by initial conditions close to the equilibria. These spurious sets look “delayed” in the considered bifurcation scenario. Once the integration step-size is reduced, the spurious branches maintain their shapes
but tend to the branches obtained from initial condition within neighborhoods of equilibria. While the
spurious branches move once the integration step size reduces, the branches generated by the initial conditions near the equilibria maintain their positions in the considered bifurcation space. This phenomenon
does not depend on the integration-time interval, and repeats in the parameter bifurcation space.

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