Construct validity and factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among physicians in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ahmad Azam Malik, Marwan A Bakarman, Nadeem Shafique Butt
Sleep disorders continue to rise and have been estimated to affect around half of the global population. Poor sleep quality and insomnia are also linked to various health issues in different populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is one of the most commonly used tool to assess sleep quality. It has been tested in various clinical and non-clinical settings and populations but mostly in developed world. Literature is limited from Arab region and further scarcity of studies is observed among health providers from the region. This study aimed to assess the construct validity and factor structure of PSQI among physicians in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study used the PSQI tool with 19 items and 7 components on 330 physicians working in Jeddah. Data was entered and analyzed in IBM SPSS and AMOS version 22. Cronbach alpha was 0.745. Construct validity showed satisfactory results. Exploration of factor structure with Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed 1-factor model as better fit. Among three models, 3-factor model showed least fit indices. The study findings showed some similarities as well as differences to comparable studies using PSQI in other settings that requires further as well as continuous exploration of the dynamic issue in similar and diverse settings.