Association of ankle brachial index in middle aged and elderly with their cardiovascular risk factors

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Pakistan Heart Journal, 49(4), 151-157 (2016) .


Objective: To find the association of individual cardiovascular risk factor and the number of cardiovascular risk factors with Ankle Brachial Index. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at Cardiology Executive and Family Medicine clinics of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi for a period of 1 year between 1st May 2009 and 30th April 2010. The risk factors included were age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking and obesity. The systolic blood pressure level was noted in both the brachial arteries and then systolic pressure was measured in both the posterior tibial and dorsalispedis arteries with a standardized method using 8 MHz Doppler probe. The value of Ankle Brachial Index was determined as the ratio of the mean of the ankle systolic pressures to the mean of brachial systolic pressures. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: About 100 participants were screened for cardiovascular risk factors with an interview-based questionnaire. The ankle brachial index was below normal (0.9) in 40% off patients. Of cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension and dyslipidemia were significantly associated with ankle brachial index values (p<0.05) . As the number of cardiovascular risk factors increase, there is a proportionate decrease in ankle brachial index. Conclusion: Peripheral arterial disease is more likely to occur in patients with dyslipidemia and hypertension. The risk of peripheral arterial disease increases with increase in number of cardiovascular risk factors in middle aged and elderly. These patients require a more stringent control of their risk factors to prevent complications. Key

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